1. Incandescent lamp
An incandescent light bulb is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence). The filament, heated by passing an electric current through it, is protected from oxidation with a glass or quartz bulb that is filled with inert gas or evacuated.
2. Halogen lamp
Halogen lamp is an incandescent lamp that has a small amount of a halogen such as iodine or bromine added. The combination of the halogen gas and the tungsten filament produces a halogen cycle chemical reaction which redeposit’s evaporated tungsten to the filament, increasing its life and maintaining the clarity of the envelope. Because of this, a halogen lamp can be operated at a higher temperature than a standard gas-filled lamp of similar power and operating life, producing light of a higher luminous efficacy and color temperature. The small size of halogen lamps permits their use in compact optical systems for projectors and illumination.
A compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) is a fluorescent lamp designed to replace an incandescent light bulb; some types fit into light fixtures designed for incandescent bulbs. The lamps use a tube which is curved or folded to fit into the space of an incandescent bulb, and compact electronic ballast in the base of the lamp.
4. Tube light
A fluorescent lamp is a low pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light. An electric current in the gas excites mercury vapor which produces short-wave ultraviolet light that then causes a phosphor coating on the inside of the lamp to glow. A fluorescent lamp converts electrical energy into useful light much more efficiently than incandescent lamps. The typical luminous efficacy of fluorescent lighting systems is 50–100 lumens per watt, several times the efficacy of incandescent bulbs with comparable light output.
5. LED bulb
An LED lamp is a light-emitting diode (LED) product which is assembled into a lamp for use in lighting fixtures. LED lamps have a lifespan and electrical efficiency which are several times greater than incandescent lamps, and are significantly more efficient than most fluorescent lamps, with some chips able to emit more than 300 lumens per watt.
In an electrical installation or an electricity supply system an earthing system connects specific parts of that installation with the Earth's conductive surface for safety and functional purposes. The point of reference is the Earth's conductive surface, or on ships, the surface of the sea. The choice of earthing system can affect the safety and electromagnetic compatibility of the installation.
7. MCB, MCCB, RCCB, ELCB, Fuse
A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by excess current, typically resulting from an overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to interrupt current flow after a fault is detected. A circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect low-current circuits or individual household appliance, up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city.
Miniature circuit breaker (MCB): rated current not more than 100 A. Trip characteristics normally not adjustable. Thermal or thermal-magnetic operation.
Molded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB): rated current up to 2,500 A. Thermal or thermal-magnetic operation. Trip current may be adjustable in larger ratings.
Residual-current circuit breaker (RCCB): A device that instantly breaks an electric circuit to prevent serious harm from an ongoing electric shock. Injury may still occur in some cases, for example if a human falls after receiving a shock.
Earth-leakage circuit breaker (ELCB): A safety device used in electrical installations with high Earth impedance to prevent shock. It detects small stray voltages on the metal enclosures of electrical equipment, and interrupts the circuit if a dangerous voltage is detected.
Fuse: A device used in electrical systems to protect against excessive current.
8. Solar panel
Solar panels are a collection of solar cells that convert light into electricity. It absorbs the sun's rays as a source of energy for generating electricity or heating. Lots of small solar cells spread over a large area can work together to provide enough power to be useful. The more light that hits a cell, the more electricity it produces
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, Smartphone’s, and electric cars. When a battery is supplying electric power, its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative terminal is the anode. Battery are of different types one is dry cell battery and another is acid battery.
11 Inverter, simple, hybrids:
An inverter is an electronic device or circuitry that changes direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC).
The input voltage, output voltage and frequency, and overall power handling depend on the design of the specific device or circuitry. The inverter does not produce any power; the power is provided by the DC source.
A hybrid inverter is an inverter which can simultaneously manage inputs from both solar panels and a battery bank, charging batteries with either solar panels or the electricity grid.
The intensity of light emitted from a surface per unit area in a given direction. It describes the amount of light that passes through, is emitted or reflected from a particular area, and falls within a given solid angle.