Thursday, February 1, 2018

33 kV Substation sample drawing



Different Industries

S.N Industries          Capacity (kVA)

1 Paper  and Plastic Recycle Industries 50

2 Distillery and Brewery Industries 100

3 Leather, Meat Processing and Bone Industries 100

4 Packaging Industries 40

5 Cold Storage for Vegetables 40

6 Cold Storage for Fruits 40

7 Pellet Industries, Rice and Maida Mills 100

8 Fruit Processing, Beverage- Pulp, Syrup-Juice Industries 40

9 Spices Processing, Herbs Processing-Essentials Oils, maize-Cornflakes, Vegetable Oils, Tomato-Ketchup; Potato-Chips 50

10 Metal industries, Aluminum Industries 100

Friday, August 4, 2017

Having problem with power socket


Are you having a problem with multi type power socket? You have only round pin socket and you need to buy extension cable and panic about buying many extension cables no problem here is the solution. Now you can find multi purpose power socket with every solution.
If you want to feel free to call for proper guidance and complete solution.


Tuesday, April 4, 2017

Basic Definition of Electrical System

1.       Incandescent lamp
An incandescent light bulb is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence). The filament, heated by passing an electric current through it, is protected from oxidation with a glass or quartz bulb that is filled with inert gas or evacuated.

2.       Halogen lamp
Halogen lamp is an incandescent lamp that has a small amount of a halogen such as iodine or bromine added. The combination of the halogen gas and the tungsten filament produces a halogen cycle chemical reaction which redeposit’s evaporated tungsten to the filament, increasing its life and maintaining the clarity of the envelope. Because of this, a halogen lamp can be operated at a higher temperature than a standard gas-filled lamp of similar power and operating life, producing light of a higher luminous efficacy and color temperature. The small size of halogen lamps permits their use in compact optical systems for projectors and illumination.

3.       CFL
A compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) is a fluorescent lamp designed to replace an incandescent light bulb; some types fit into light fixtures designed for incandescent bulbs. The lamps use a tube which is curved or folded to fit into the space of an incandescent bulb, and compact electronic ballast in the base of the lamp.

4.       Tube light
A fluorescent lamp is a low pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light. An electric current in the gas excites mercury vapor which produces short-wave ultraviolet light that then causes a phosphor coating on the inside of the lamp to glow. A fluorescent lamp converts electrical energy into useful light much more efficiently than incandescent lamps. The typical luminous efficacy of fluorescent lighting systems is 50–100 lumens per watt, several times the efficacy of incandescent bulbs with comparable light output.

5.       LED bulb
An LED lamp is a light-emitting diode (LED) product which is assembled into a lamp for use in lighting fixtures. LED lamps have a lifespan and electrical efficiency which are several times greater than incandescent lamps, and are significantly more efficient than most fluorescent lamps, with some chips able to emit more than 300 lumens per watt. 

6.       Earthing
In an electrical installation or an electricity supply system an earthing system connects specific parts of that installation with the Earth's conductive surface for safety and functional purposes. The point of reference is the Earth's conductive surface, or on ships, the surface of the sea. The choice of earthing system can affect the safety and electromagnetic compatibility of the installation.

7.       MCB, MCCB, RCCB, ELCB, Fuse
MCB:
A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by excess current, typically resulting from an overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to interrupt current flow after a fault is detected. A circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect low-current circuits or individual household appliance, up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city.

Miniature circuit breaker (MCB): rated current not more than 100 A. Trip characteristics     normally not adjustable. Thermal or thermal-magnetic operation.
Molded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB): rated current up to 2,500 A. Thermal or thermal-magnetic operation. Trip current may be adjustable in larger ratings.

Residual-current circuit breaker (RCCB): A device that instantly breaks an electric circuit to prevent serious harm from an ongoing electric shock. Injury may still occur in some cases, for example if a human falls after receiving a shock.
Earth-leakage circuit breaker (ELCB): A safety device used in electrical installations with high Earth impedance to prevent shock. It detects small stray voltages on the metal enclosures of electrical equipment, and interrupts the circuit if a dangerous voltage is detected. 
Fuse: A device used in electrical systems to protect against excessive current.

8.       Solar panel
Solar panels are a collection of solar cells that convert light into electricity.  It absorbs the sun's rays as a source of energy for generating electricity or heating. Lots of small solar cells spread over a large area can work together to provide enough power to be useful. The more light that hits a cell, the more electricity it produces
10 Battery
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, Smartphone’s, and electric cars. When a battery is supplying electric power, its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative terminal is the anode. Battery are of different types one is dry cell battery and another is acid battery.

 11 Inverter, simple, hybrids:
An inverter is an electronic device or circuitry that changes direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC).
The input voltage, output voltage and frequency, and overall power handling depend on the design of the specific device or circuitry. The inverter does not produce any power; the power is provided by the DC source.
Hybrid Inverter:
 A hybrid inverter is an inverter which can simultaneously manage inputs from both solar panels and a battery bank, charging batteries with either solar panels or the electricity grid. 

12. Luminance

The intensity of light emitted from a surface per unit area in a given direction.  It describes the amount of light that passes through, is emitted or reflected from a particular area, and falls within a given solid angle.

Architectural Design


Architectural Design/ Interior design of Resturant 

Monday, January 30, 2017

Steps to be followed to solve MCQ multiple answer in Listening

Steps to be followed to solve MCQ multiple answer
1.       As the talk began take notes of the following:
a.       Listen to the 1st and 2nd sentence, figure out the topic and note it down
b.      As you keep on listening take note of keywords as time, person and location, events, dates and specific part related to topic
c.       Take note of how the talk is going on, the flow of information
d.      Take note of how talk ends
2.       Once note talking features simply think about all points of note and create a mental map.
3.       Go to the question and indicate what exactly it is asking for
4.       Go to the option and select the one that answer the question

Multiple choices to single answer

Listen to the talk. Listen to the topic and main idea

Tuesday, January 3, 2017

PTE academic Reading : Tips for Re-order the paragraph

Steps to be followed to solve Re-order paragraph Questions                                                                      1.  Read all the sentences that are provided and identify their unified central Idea or Central theme.      2. Step ahead for the proper or accurate identification of topic sentence. Read each sentence again and look for the sentence that carries the following characteristics.
Ø  It states the main topic of the theme.
Ø  It doesn’t talk about the content of other sentences, but others talk about it.
Ø  It doesn’t contain any pronoun that refers to the antecedent that lies in other sentences.
Ø  It doesn’t begin with any transitional devices that indicate the flow of the information from other sentences to it.
Ø  It simply states an idea that is the central discussion of all other sentences.
Ø  It establishes a new point that is logically followed by other sentences.


Monday, January 2, 2017

Micro Hydro Project: an option for development of Rural Areas

Energy is basic necessity for survival. It is one of the most essential factors for economic development. Basically energy is used for lighting and power. In rural village it is derived from different sources such as kerosene, diesel, biomass, candles etc for lighting purpose. Fuel burning lanterns are the most common alternative of electric lights, which are considered to be a source of respiratory disease. Some of the houses use torch lights and dry cells.
Micro hydro is an attractive choice for electricity generation in rural areas or undeveloped communities where grid supply is not available. Micro hydro project is a pioneering electricity generation system designed to cope with the lighting demand of houses in rural communities where national grid isn’t available.  It is superior system for that community where investment can’t be afforded for the large scale hydro and connection of national grid isn’t possible for many year but they need energy to develop communities.
The micro hydro system is designed to provide electricity by using the water resources available in the local areas. By taking the advantages of head and flow, water is used to generate electricity. Micro hydro system is built with technology and materials that is found in local market. It consists of set that consists of synchronous generator; turbine and penstock pipe. Due to the availability of these components as well as the technicians, installation of the project is cheap.
Before the development of micro hydro project there was a lot of consumption of fossil fuel such as kerosene, diesel for lamp and operation of agricultural processing mill. Some of the houses used Chinese torch lights and dry cells for lighting purposes. There was consumption of 45 liters of kerosene per year and 48 number of dry cell per house, now this has been reduced to in number and also saves the money that were being invested in these materials. There was excess use of wood for cooking purpose and ‘Jharo’ for lighting which was not the best solution for lighting due to its hazards including environmental and health problems. They were not able to work at night; student had to study in smoggy kerosene lamp. As a result, they were living an uncomfortable life. This had direct and indirect effect on their health, reduced their work efficiency and led a life with lower indicator of human development. 
After the development of micro hydro projects, the consumption of fossils fuel has drastically reduced and use of wood has also decreased. There is an establishment of agro processing mill such as grinder and other local industries such as lokta processing, carpentry, bakery, poultry farm and cold store for the preservation of vegetables and fruit for sending to markets which has created the employment in village and agro processing mill has provided facility for people to grind their product.
end use.jpgUntil, MHP they have to walk long distances or they have to pay high rate for grinding the product in diesel operated mill. It has also saved the time of the people. Local industries have been increasing and people have been establishing electronics shop, computer institute and hotels which have provided job for people.
There is an operator for running the plant and maintenance of the power plant. The establishment of plant has also provided job to some people.  School of that are now upgrading their school and providing students computer education and other facilities to compete the student with city area. People are watching TV which has also help them to see the world and other development in the world. Development of Micro-hydro project has made the rural areas life a simple manner.
The life standard of people in that area has increased and it helps them increase income generation in household level. Success of this project has now become one of the factors to boost up the villagers lifestyle. They use electricity for lightning purpose and communication purpose. After the success of this project, students have opportunity to read at night in clean environment. People are now more engaged in different works for promoting their source of income such as in agriculture product and other locally available product etc. They are able to do their work at night time .The source of income and standard of life has been improved. People are now more conscious and aware of utilizing electricity; they are now in search of creating more micro hydro project in the vicinity of that area. It helps to preserve the deforestation of forest.
The maintenance cost of the project is somehow problem in that area but if some people take trainings related to the plant then it will be benefit for villagers. They can get knowledge about how to run this system properly and how to repair it when there is some fault or problem. This will create opportunities of job for some people. He/she will look after the system and they don’t need to hire other technician for simple problem, which also reduces the cost for maintenance.  It also helps them to not to depend on other people for any simple maintenance and repair. 

Thus in the developing countries micro hydro can play vital role in the development of rural communities. It is a better alternative for the area where national grid has not been available. The development of new technology and mini grid concept can help micro hydro for the long term sustainable.

Friday, December 16, 2016

Participation in 5th Edition of International IEEE Conference on Wireless Networks & Embedded Systems



                                                       Receiving a Best Presenter’s Award

Mr. Kafle has participated in 5th Edition of International IEEE Conference on Wireless Networks & Embedded Systems held in Punjab, India. He has presented his research paper in this conference . The title of his paper was "Modeling Of Local Rural Grid Connection Of Cluster Based Micro-Hydro Plants". He was  awarded by Best Presenter's Award in the program on Alternate Energy Based Electronic System.